Prevalence of Chytrid

There is a serious conservation risk to amphibians globally with the emerging prevalence of the chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by this Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a type of fungus infecting amphibians. In amphibians that are infected, the skin becomes thick due to hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, and these changes can be deadly. Below is a list of papers that include testing for Bd in African species. Please contact Breda ( to add additional references.


Aanensen, D. and Fisher, M. 2010. Bd–Maps. Available at

Baláž, V., Kopecky, O. and Gvoždík, V. 2012. Presence of the amphibian chytrid pathogen confirmed in Cameroon. Herpetological Journal 22: 191–194.

Bell, R.C., A.V.G. Garcia, B.L. Stuart, and Zamudio, K.R. 2011. High prevalence of the amphibian chytrid pathogen in Gabon. EcoHealth.

Blackburn, D.C., Evans, B.J., Pessier, A.P. and Vredenburg, V.T. 2010. An enigmatic mortality event in the only population of the Critically Endangered Cameroonian frog Xenopus longipes, African Journal of Herpetology 59 (2): 111–122.

Carey, C., Bradford, D.F., Brunner, J.L., Collins, J.P., Davidson, E.W., Longcore, J.E., Pessier, A.P. and Schock, D.M. 2004. Pp. 153 208. In G. Linder, S.K. Krest & D.W. Sparling (Eds.), Amphibian Decline: an Integrated Analysis of Multiple Stressor Effects. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola.

Channing, A., Finlow–Bates, K.S., Haarklau, S.E. and Hawkes, P.G. 2006. The biology and recent history of the Critically Endangered Kihansi Spray Toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History 95: 117–138.

Daversa, D., Bosch, J. and Jaffrey, K. 2011.  First survey of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in amphibian populations of Gabon, Africa.  Herpetological Review 42:  67–69.

Doherty-Bone, T.M., Bielby, J., Gonwouo, N.L.,  LeBreton, M., and Cunningham, A.A. 2008. IN a vulnerable position? Preliminary survey work fails to detect the amphibian chytrid pathogen in the highlands of Cameroon, an amphibian hotspot. Herpetological Journal 18:115–118.

El Mouden, E. H., Alimani, T., Donaire, D. Fernández–Beaskoetxea, S., Fisher, M.C., Bosch, J. 2011.  First record of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in North Africa.  Herpetological Review 42: 71–75.

Goldberg, T.L., Readel, A.M., and Lee, M.H. 2007. Chytrid fungus in frogs from an equatorial African Montane forest in Western Uganda. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43 (3): 521–524.

Gratwicke, B., Alonso, A., Elie, T., Kolowski, J., Lock, J., Rotzel, N., Sevin, J., Fleischer, R.C. 2011. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis not detected on amphibians from two lowland sites in Gabon, Africa.  Herpetological Review  42:  69–71.

Greenbaum, E., Kusamba, C., Aristote, M.M., and Reed, K.D. 2008. Amphibian chytrid fungus infections in Hyperolius (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Herpetol. Rev. 39: 70–73.

Hopkins, S., and A. Channing. 2003. Chytrid fungus in Northern and Western Cape frog populations, South Africa. Herpetological Review 34: 334–336.

Imasuen, A.A., Weldon, C., Aisien, M.S.O., and du Preez, L.H. 2009. Amphibian chytridiomycosis: first report in Nigeria from the skin slough of Chiromantis rufescens. Froglog 90: 6–8.

Kielgast, J., Rödder, D., Veith, M., and Lötters, S. 2010. Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus in Kenya. Animal Conservation 13: 1–8.

Lane, E.P., C. Weldon, and J. Bingham. 2003. Histological evidence of chytridiomycete fungal infection in a free–ranging amphibian, Afrana fuscigula (Anura: Ranidae) in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 74: 20–21.

Morehouse, E.A., T.Y. James, A.R.D. Ganley, R. Vilgalys, L. Berger, P.J. Murphy, and J.E. Longcore. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone. Molecular Ecology 12: 395–403.

Oullett, M., Mikaelian, I., Pauli, B.D., Rodrigue, J., Green, D.M. (2005): Historical evidence of widespread chytrid infection in North American amphibian populations. Conservation Biology 19: 1431–1440.

Reeder, N.M.M., Cheng, T., Vredenburg, and Blackburn, D.C. Survey of the chytrid fungus Batrachochyrium dendrobatidis from montane and lowland frogs in eastern Nigeria. Herpetology Notes 4: 83–86.

Soto-Axat, C., Clarke, B.T., Poynton, J.C., and Cunningham, A.A. 2010. Widespread historical presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in African pipid frog populations. Diversity and Distributions 16: 126–131.

Weldon, C., and L.H. du Preez. 2004. Decline of the Kihansi Spray Toad, Nectophrynoides asperginis, from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Froglog 62: 2–3.

Weldon, C., L.H. du Preez, A.D. Hyatt, R. Muller, and R. Speare. 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 2100–2105.

Weldon, C. 2005. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians in South Africa. PhD Thesis, North–West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith